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Participation Models: Citizens, Youth, Online

Image is illustrative. Photo by cottonbro from Pexels

The author has collected information on and traced the origins of different models, schemata and theories of participation. These are the 36 models covered:

1969 Ladder of citizen participation Sherry Arnstein; 1992 Ladder of children participation Roger Hart; 1996 Typology of participation Sarah White; 1997 Degrees of participation Phil Treseder
1998 Wheel of participation Scott Davidson; 2000 Spectrum of public participation IAP2 [latest version from 2007, see comments below]; 2001 Active participation framework OECD
2001 Pathways to participation Harry Shier; 2001 Clarity model of participation Clare Lardner; 2001 Strategic approach to participation UNICEF
2002 Triangle of youth participation Jans & de Backer
2002 Youth participation in society Jans & de Backer
2002 Dimensions of youth participation David Driskell
2002 Seven realms of participation Francis & Lorenzo
2003 Ladder of volunteer participation Adam Fletcher
2003 Youth engagement continuum FCYO
2006 Four Cs of online participation Derek Wenmoth
2006 Power law of participation Ross Mayfield
2006 Levels, spaces and forms of power John Gaventa
2006 The CLEAR Participation Model Lawndes & Pratchett
2006 Four L Engagement Model Tony Karrer
2007 Participation 2.0 Model New Zealand
2007 Spectrum of public participation IAP2 [first version from 2000, see comments below]
2007 Engagement in the policy cycle Diane Warburton
2007 Online Participation Behaviour Chain Fogg & Eckles
2009 Key dimensions of participation Driskell & Neema
2009 Matrix of participation Tim Davies
2009 Pathways through participation NCVO & IVR
2010 Changing views on participation Pedro Martín
2010 Ladder of online participation Bernoff & Li
2010 Online participation across age Rick Wicklin
2010 Three-lens approach to participation DFID-CSO
2010 Behavior Grid BJ Fogg
2010 The Participation Tree Harry Shier
2011 Typology of Youth Participation Wong et al.
2011 Six principles of online participation Tim Davies
2012 The Yinyang Model Shier et al.