Glossary

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5 A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V X Y

5G is the fifth and latest technology standard for broadband cellular networks.
5G aims to have higher downloading speeds and lower latency times, enabling use cases where near-instantaneous responses are required, such as gaming and the control of machines in factories. It also offers an improved ability to handle many devices at the same location, paving the way for the connection of increasing numbers of Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

A set of measures that enable persons with disabilities access to something on an equal basis with others. This applies to, for example, access to the physical environment, to transportation, to information and communications, including IT and communications technologies, and to other facilities and services open or provided to the public, both in urban and in rural areas. (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities)

Active citizenship stands for the participation of citizens in the economic, social, cultural and political fields of their communities. In the youth field much emphasis is put on learning the necessary competencies through voluntary activities. The aim is not only to improve the knowledge, but also motivation, skills and practical experience to be an active citizen.

 

is a way of thinking, acting, and creating when responding to change in uncertain and turbulent environments. It’s about thinking through how you can understand what’s going on in the environment, identify what uncertainty you’re facing and figure out how to adapt as you go along.

A set of rules or calculations used to solve problems and deliver a result. Algorithms are used in social media to deliver content to the user. Not all social media platforms use algorithms, though many have adopted news feeds that are delivered via an algorithm in recent years.

Forms of involvement which have a greater potential for non-formality, openness and autonomy than the traditional forms of youth participation. These forms might refer to campaigns, protests or youth activism, innovative approaches to involving young people in policy making and implementation, or participation which extensively uses digital tools and spaces, besides other forms which might be created in the future.

AI refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind, such as learning and problem-solving.The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalise and take actions that have the best chance of achieving a specific goal.

Learning through listening – sometimes grouped with visual learning and kinaesthetic learning as one of the three different types of learning.

Refers to massive complex structured and unstructured data sets that are rapidly generated and transmitted from a wide variety of sources. Volume (the huge amounts of data being stored), velocity (the lightning speed at which data streams must be processed and analyzed) and variety (the different sources and forms from which data is collected, such as numbers, text, video, images, audio and text) are the three key characteristics of big data.

A short description of an organisation (usually in few sentences) that is put at the end of each press release, so journalists can get a clear overview of what the organisation is trying to achieve.

A transmission of information to a large group of people. Originally, it referred to radio and television broadcasts. Today, it also describes digital broadcasts sent over the Internet.

The ability of individuals using digital media to interact with and reshape news and content by providing their own information, comment or perspective.

Civic tech refers to innovative technologies that focus on informing citizens, connecting them with each other and getting them to engage with their government in order to work together for the public good. It is seen as an instrument to empower citizens and fuel social change, while also helping governments get a better understanding of what their citizens want and need.
Next to Civic tech, the term Gov tech is also used, describing a wide range of technologies provided to governments to increase the efficiency of public administration. Some Civic Tech tools are used by governments to get in touch with citizens, but some other tools are used independently of governments by civil society organisations or even independent citizens.

Cloud computing describes a key development in the information and communications technology (ICT) landscape: computing resources and services are provided on-demand online, and stored on remote servers. It enables, at all times and everywhere, access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level technology services that can be dynamically provisioned with minimal management effort, usually over the Internet. Cloud computing relies on the sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a public utility.

The act of bringing different parties (such as decision-makers, experts, young people) working together in order to produce an outcome which is jointly valued.

The practice of managing a project, program, process or structure jointly with young people. In a co-management model adults and young people have equal rights and responsibilities. Example of co-management: Council of Europe Advisory Council on Youth

The set of principles of conduct for journalists that describes the appropriate behaviour to meet the highest professional standards. Examples of such codes were established by the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ). Most share common principles, including truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness and public accountability, as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public.

Any form of media that is created and controlled by a community – either a geographic community or a community of identity or interest. Community media (also known as indigenous media) are separate from either private (commercial) media, state-run media or public broadcast media. These media are increasingly recognised as a crucial element in a vibrant and democratic media system.

The pedagogical approach in MIL teaching that focuses on the study and analysis of the technical, narrative and situational contexts of media texts.

A set of rights granted to the author or creator of a work, to restrict others’ ability to copy, redistribute and reshape the content. Rights are frequently owned by the companies who sponsor the work rather than the creators themselves, and can be bought and sold on the market.

Creative Commons (CC) licenses give everyone from individual creators to large institutions a standardized way to grant the public permission to use their creative work under copyright law. From the reuser’s perspective, the presence of a Creative Commons license on a copyrighted work answers the question, “What can I do with this work?”. There are 6 types of different CC licenses that range by the level of permission.

Communication during an unstable or crucial time or state of affairs, where an organisation should implement a crisis communication plan and communicate openly, honestly and clearly and provide relevant information to everyone involved (e.g. it could be that the COVID-19 outbreak happens during a youth exchange or that an accident happens during an organisation’s activities).

A stage when the protagonist is usually forced to make serious choices about where they will proceed next, and continuing on their path usually requires them to change their approach.

The ability to examine and analyse information and ideas in order to understand and assess their values and assumptions, rather than simply taking propositions at face value (c.f. also reflective thinking).

Crowd-innovation is about harnessing the collective intelligence of multiple stakeholders to accelerate the innovation process with the goal of co-creating better ideas, solving challenges in a community or generating better services and products. Such processes have the potential to attract non-traditional participants from diverse backgrounds who may not necessarily be domain experts but that could bring a new perspective. Crowd-innovation has become a more popular approach due to technology companies that started using it in order to accelerate their digital transformation journey.

Cyber attack is any attempt to gain access to a technological device (computer, mobile phone, network of computers) with the intent to cause damage. It generally attempts to gain unauthorised access with the purpose of stealing, modifying or blocking access to data. Some of the most widespread examples of cyber attacks are phishing, malware or ransomware leading to effects such as identity theft, fraud, extortion, instant messaging abuse etc.

The safe and responsible use of information and communication technology. It is about keeping information safe and secure, but also about being responsible with that information, being respectful of other people online and using good “netiquette” (internet etiquette).

The use of technology (such as the internet or a mobile phone) to bully others. Cyberbullying can happen in a number of different ways including receiving nasty messages or emails, being the target of a hate group on a social networking site, having embarrassing photos and videos shared publicly online, or being excluded from group conversations. Content can be circulated very quickly and anonymously on the internet, and there are often lots of bystanders which can make the experience more traumatic and harder to combat.

The body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, devices, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorised access. Government agencies, the military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals and other groups collect, process and store a great deal of confidential information on computers and transmit that data across networks to other computers. With the growing volume and sophistication of cyber attacks, ongoing attention is required to protect sensitive business and personal information, as well as safeguard national security.

Describes the virtual world of the global network of computers. For example, an object in cyberspace refers to a block of data floating around a computer system or network. So, after sending an email to your friend, you could say you sent the message to her through cyberspace.

The process where a small script, also known as a malicious bot, is used to automatically extract large amount of data from websites and use it for other purposes. As a cheap and easy way to collect online data, the technique is often used without permission to steal website information such as text, photos, email addresses, and contact lists.

The process used to extract usable data from a larger set of any raw data. It implies analysing data patterns in large batches of data using one or more software. This process helps researchers to learn more about the subject in question as, for example, businesses learn specific qualities or behaviour about their customers.

The continued storage of an organisation’s data for compliance or business reasons. An organisation may retain data for several different reasons. One reason is to comply with state and federal regulations.

The process of showing that something is less important, less effective or less true than it has been made out to appear.

A video that has been edited using an algorithm to replace the person in the original video with someone else (especially a public figure) in a way that makes the video look authentic.

is a historical period that began in the mid-20th century and which is characterised by the expansion of digital technologies in the functioning of society.

The ability, by having the ICT equipment and skills, to participate in a digital society, such as access government information online, use social networking sites and use a mobile phone. In a broader sense, digital citizenship is also referred as an understanding of oneself as an equal and responsible resident of the online, as well as the offline, world.

Digital competences are a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes with regard to the use of technology to perform tasks, solve problems, communicate, manage information, collaborate, as well as to create and share content effectively, appropriately, securely, critically, creatively, independently and ethically.

Digital divide usually refers to the different gaps existing in society in terms of access to digital technologies (eg. computer, smart phones, Internet). The gaps are related to the demographics (age, education, economic status) but also to regions (depending on the level of access and affordability of Internet and technology there are significant differences between the global regions).
Recent focuses have looked at digital divide in terms of those who can benefit from ICT and does who don’t from a wider perspective – including access to different digital (public) services, emerging technologies as well as opportunities for improving digital competences.

A trail of data any Internet user creates while surfing the Internet. It includes the websites visited, emails sent, and information submitted to online services. Active and passive digital footprints include the data received with and without user’s direct intention.

Digital inclusion refers to the ability of individuals and communities, particularly those disadvantaged and underrepresented, to access and use information and communications technologies (ICT). It is an evolving concept that needs to keep pace with technology, including different elements such as access to affordable and robust Internet, Internet-enabled devices that meet the need of the individual (eg. assistive technologies), access to digital literacy opportunities and to services/online content designed to enable and encourage self-sufficiency, participation and collaboration.

describe differences in people’s meaningful access, use of and benefits from digital technologies.

The ability to use digital technology, communication tools or networks to locate, evaluate, use and create information. It also refers to the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when presented via computers, or to a person’s ability to perform tasks effectively in a digital environment. (UNESDOC Digital Library, 2013)

The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to support participation and involvement in government and governance processes.

Digital rights are considered to be the same fundamental human rights that exist in the offline world – but in the online world. In 2012 (and again in 2014 and 2016), the UN Human Rights Council agreed in a resolution that the “same rights that people have offline must also be protected online.” This means that rather than seeking to define new rights for the online space, UN has recommended extending existing human rights to cyberspace. At the same time, rights such as privacy and freedom of expression have gained additional attention as cases of abuse have been noticed by both private and public stakeholders. In this context, a number of European and international organisations are on a path to ensure safeguards for human rights in the new digital era.

Digital skills are broadly defined as a range of abilities to use digital devices, communication applications, and networks to access and manage information. The use of digital competences is sometimes preferred to better describe the entire spectrum of what an individual needs to do and know when dealing with digital technologies, including knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Digital strategy refers to the plan each organisation needs to have in order to improve its performance with the support of digital technologies. The plan includes changing or improving internal processes and procedures by using technologies (devices, software, cloud solutions etc), adapting or creating new services or ensuring an online presence. A successful digital strategy is closely connected with the level of digital competences of team members and the capacity to understand the new digital culture – the use of digital technologies implies a change in behaviour for both internal teams and external beneficiaries.

In the European youth field, digital transformation is understood as a multi-stakeholder and inclusive process encompassing the co-design, implementation and utilisation of people-centred digital technologies with and by young people, youth workers and other relevant stakeholders. digital transformation changes the way most areas of the youth field operate. Digital transformation describes the evolving integration of digital technologies into social, economic, and cultural processes and structures.

Digitalisation refers to the use of digital technologies and digitised data to enable or improve organisational processes and business models. It is assumed to increase productivity and efficiency, by changing an existing process without changing its original purpose. The shift is from human-dependent processes to software-enabled ones.
Digitalisation is an important step towards Digital Transformation, whereas digitalisation is focused on the use of digital technologies to impact how work gets done, digital transformation requires a much broader and profound adoption of digital technologies to accelerate transformation of work, processes, competences and models to fully leverage the new changes and opportunities, ultimately, becoming an ongoing journey towards a culture of change and innovation.

is the process of converting information and processes into a digital format (e.g. using new communication tools such as video conferencing instead of group offline meetings).

The process of converting a product or service to digital form.

False information created with the intent to harm a person, group or country. It can include imposter content, false context, manipulated content and fabricated content (Wardle and Derakhshan, 2017). Misinformation becomes disinformation when the creator or multiplier of the information has the intent to mislead the recipient (Karlova and Fisher, 2013).

A subdivision of the Internet consisting of computers or sites usually with a common purpose (such as providing commercial information) and denoted in internet addresses by a unique abbreviation (such as .com for commercial sites or .gov for government sites). A domain is obtained for hosting a website.

The term comes from the expression “dropping dox”, which was a revenge tactic used by hackers where they dropped malicious information on a rival. Nowadays, doxxing is used to shame or punish people who would rather stay anonymous, because of their controversial beliefs or other types of non-mainstream activity.

Earned media is connected with the voluntary sharing of an organisation’s activities and is not controlled directly by that organisation (e.g. word of mouth, sending out a press release and having a journalist wrote a piece about it).

A metaphorical description of a situation in which beliefs are amplified or reinforced by communication and repetition inside a closed system. By visiting an “echo chamber”, people are able to seek out information that reinforces their existing views, potentially as an unconscious exercise of confirmation bias.

challenging emotions, experienced to a significant degree, due to environmental issues and the threats they pose, impacting our mental health.

system of values that recognises that all species, including humans, are the product of a long evolutionary process and are inter-related in their life processes.

Edge computing brings computation and data storage closer to the devices where it’s being gathered. In this new paradigm, data does not traverse over a network to a cloud or data centre to be processed, thus latency is significantly reduced. Edge computing is considered particularly important in the development of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and 5G networks — enabling faster and more comprehensive data analysis, creating the opportunity for deeper insights, faster response times and improved customer experiences.

The professional freedom entrusted to editors to make editorial decisions without interference from the owner of the media outlet or any other state or non-state actors.

A request to the media that the information an organisation shares with them not be released until a certain date or unless some special conditions have been fulfilled.

Emerging technology is a term that commonly refers to technologies that are currently developing, or that are expected to be available within the next five to ten years, and is usually reserved for technologies that are creating, or are expected to create significant social or economic effects.
Some characteristics describing them are radical novelty, relatively fast growth, prominent impact, uncertainty and ambiguity. In the 21st century, some of the most anticipated emerging technologies are artificial intelligence, blockchain, quantum computing, Internet of Things (IoT), energy capture and storage.

The method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information’s true meaning. The science of encrypting and decrypting information is called cryptography.

The tendency to seek distraction and relief from unpleasant realities, especially by seeking entertainment or engaging in fantasy.

A form of sports competition using video games. Esports often takes the form of organised, multiplayer video game competitions, particularly between professional players, individually or as teams.

An youth participatory process implemented across Europe which brings together young people and youth organisations involving also policy and decision makers, as well as experts, researchers and other relevant civil society actors. It serves as a forum for continuous joint reflection and consultation on the priorities, implementation and follow-up of European cooperation in the field of youth. It is the follow-up of the process previously known as Structured Dialogue.

The extent to which an organisation (or a person, action or cause) is known within target audiences. In short, it is the measure that says how much a target audience is aware of an organisation’s work.

Communication in which organisations communicate with the outside world and various public groups. These public groups can include target groups, media, politicians, experts or the general public.

False information or propaganda published under the guise of being authentic news. Fake news websites and channels push their fake news content in an attempt to mislead consumers about the content and spread false facts via social networks and word-of-mouth. The official term used for fake news is information disorder.

Appealing to an irrelevant, unqualified, unidentified, biased, or fabricated source in support of an argument.

A situation in which an internet user encounters only information and opinions that conform to and reinforce their own beliefs, caused by algorithms that personalise an individual’s online experience.

Occurs when messages pass through an intermediary in the communication channel. Filtering can often alter the original message, limit its effectiveness or render it incomprehensible.

Frames and concepts that underpin and influence youth participation, such as the human rights framework, social justice framework, ethical framework for youth work

A fundamental human right. It is used to indicate both the freedom of verbal speech and any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information, regardless of the medium used. The freedom of the press is a corollary to this right and essential to the building and supporting of communities and civil society.

The right of citizens to access information held by public bodies.

The freedom to speak freely without censorship or limitation.

The media in general (not just print media) being free from direct censorship or control by government. This does not preclude the application of competition law to prevent monopolies or state allocation of broadcast frequencies.

Persons within the media outlet (e.g. editors, owners, reporters) who are shaping a newsworthy message – they are the ones who are involved in the news selection process, meaning that they also choose and shape the message we see in the media. In the online sphere, gatekeepers are also influencers on social media or blog or podcast owners with a big following who can decide whether they distribute an organisation’s news article to their online following.

The use of a piece of electronic data that shows where someone or something is and that can, for example, be attached to a photograph or comment on social media.

The concept was first mentioned by Marshall McLuhan in his book “The Gutenberg Galaxy”, to describe how the globe has been contracted into a village by electronic technology and the instantaneous movement of information from every quarter to every point at the same time. It has come to be identified with the internet and the World Wide Web.

The practice of companies/organisations portraying themselves as environmentally responsible, when they really aren’t. Companies/organisations follow this green marketing practice in order to appeal to the environmentally-conscious consumer.

The criminal activity of becoming friends with a child, especially over the internet, in order to try to persuade the child to have a sexual relationship.

The unauthorised intrusion into a computer or a network. The person engaged in hacking activities is known as a hacker.

The act of misusing a computer system or network for a socially or politically motivated reason. Individuals who perform hacktivism are known as hacktivists.

Any communication that incites violence based on group specific hate of a defined group of people because of their collective characteristics (ethnicity, gender, sexuality, or other).

A set of entitlements and protections regarded as necessary to protect the dignity and self-worth of a human being. Such rights are usually captured in national and international documentation that articulates these rights (e.g. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child).

Information and Communication Technologies describe all technical means used to handle information and facilitate communication, including computer and network hardware, as well as necessary software. ICT includes telephony, broadcast media, and all types of audio and video processing and transmission.

A form of online marketing in which organisations cooperate with influencers – people who are followed by a community and are popular in the online sphere; it’s not necessary that they are celebrities, but that they are followed by others because of their personality and online presence – in order to promote their services or activities (e.g. an organisation could hire a famous YouTube blogger to promote a cause).

The ability to recognise when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, effectively use and communicate information in its various formats. Information literacy includes the competencies to be effective in all stages of the lifecycle of documents of all kinds; the capacity to understand the ethical implications of these documents; and the ability to behave in an ethical way throughout the stages.

Excess of information available to a person aiming to complete a task or make a decision. This impedes the decision-making process, resulting in a poor (or even no) decision being made.

The sum of efforts from any organisation to communicate effectively with employees, volunteers or members (internal public). This helps foster a better atmosphere and can include organising gatherings, installing a bulletin board or creating an in-house newsletter or newspaper.

Internet governance is the complementary development and application by governments, the private sector, civil society and the technical community, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and activities that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.
At the United Nations level, following the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) held in 2003 and 2005, resulted in the creation of the multistakeholder Internet Governance Forum (IGF) – an annual forum in which international agencies, governments, Internet professionals, business and civil society organisations can explore, on equal footing, the development on the Internet and its interaction with other areas of public policy. Ever since, multiple IGFs have emerged in Europe and other global regions.

An amusing or interesting item (such as a captioned picture or video) or genre of items that is spread widely online, especially through social media.

The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—“things”—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the Internet. These devices range from ordinary household objects to sophisticated industrial tools. Key IoT areas include smart living environment; smart farming and food security; wearables; smart cities and smart communities; smart mobility; smart environment and water management; smart manufacturing etc.

The Internet Penetration Rate corresponds to the percentage of the total population of a given country or region that uses the Internet. The ongoing development of telecommunication networks and infrastructure has had a direct impact on Internet penetration on a global scale. At the same time, the penetration rate is associated with both the access to Internet access points – having the infrastructure but also with the financial means to access it.

In simple terms, interoperability can be defined as “the act of making a new product or service work with an existing product or service”. Interoperability initiatives contribute to a coherent interoperable environment and facilitate the delivery of services that work together, within and across organisations or domains. The lack of interoperability has been noticed to represent a major barrier, especially in the delivery of (public) digital services, leading to fragmentation and an increased digital divide.

The style in which information is organised. The most important information goes on the top and the least relevant on the bottom. It consists of three parts: the lead (in one to two sentences 5WH should be shared); the body (describes in more details 5WH) and the tail (gives extra information). In media relations, this would mean that organisations have to use inverted pyramids when writing their press releases.

KPIs are measurable values that demonstrate how effectively and efficiently an organisation has achieved the objectives of a communication plan or any other strategy document of the organisation

An approach to learning that involves physical activity rather than, for example, listening to a lecture.

One or two sentences sent at the beginning of a press release which summarise what an organisation is talking about; usually, it consists of 5WH questions, including who, what, where, when, why and how.

LP is a video (or screenshots accompanied by text) documenting the playthrough of a video game, usually including commentary or a camera view of the gamer’s face.

Competency in the use of a library – both in a digital and non-digital sense.

An attempt to influence government officials (their actions or policies) with the aim of changing legislation or a certain decision. Lobbying usually includes face-to-face meetings and sending letters to government officials.

Media disseminated via the largest distribution channels, which are therefore representative of what the majority of media consumers are likely to encounter. The term also denotes media that generally reflect the prevailing currents of thought, influence or activity.

Problematic social media use, also known as social media addiction or social media overuse, is a proposed form of psychological or behavioural dependence on social media platforms, similar to gaming disorder, internet addiction disorder and other forms of digital media overuse.

MIL refers to the essential competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that allow citizens to engage effectively with media and other information providers and develop critical thinking and life-long learning skills for socialising and becoming active citizens. An M.I.-literate person is used as an abbreviated version of Media and Information literate person.

A measure which says how many times an organisation has been mentioned in the media. This includes all articles, video materials or other news articles produced in one place, so the organisation can examine what the media has written about them.

Conventions, formats, symbols and narrative structures that indicate the meaning of media messages to an audience. Symbolically, the language of electronic media works in much the same way as grammar works in print media.

The technical, cognitive, social, civic and creative capacities that allow us to access and have a critical understanding of and interact with media. These capacities allow us to exercise critical thinking, while participating in the economic, social and cultural aspects of society and playing an active role in the democratic process. This concept covers different media: broadcasting, radio, press, through various channels: traditional, internet, social media and addresses the needs of all ages.

Characterised by a diversity of media outlets, both in terms of ownership (private, public and community) and types of media (print, radio, television and the internet).

Communication with media outlets in order to share positive stories with the wider public. Media relations are usually connected to specific persons in media outlets and include journalists or editors. Media relation entails ensuring good relations with media representatives. In order to enhance this type of communication, an organisation can use press releases, press events or informal gatherings for journalists.

Activities aimed at the quick retail sale of goods using bundling, display techniques, free samples, on-the-spot demonstration, pricing, special offers and other point-of-sale methods.

Snippets of information that an organisation wants to relay to its target audiences; they consist of information the organisation wants its target groups to hear and remember.

A set of competencies that empower citizens to access, retrieve, evaluate, understand, use and create information and media content in all formats and sources, using ICTs in a critical, ethical and effective way. The MIL competencies are composed of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

False information, but it is not created with the intent to be harmful (Wardle and Derakhshan, 2017); therefore, it can include everyday interactions in which miscommunication takes place as well as content that could be understood in several ways.

A paper-and-pencil test with or without some semi-automated features and access to the internet. It could be delivered on CD-ROM or Memory stick (USB) formats. The results are not sent to the central server.

Theoretical models explaining the different processes or levels of youth participation, often presented in a form of diagrams and graphs. The most recognisable model of youth participation is Roger Hart’s ladder of youth participation.

A principle applied in international cooperation inviting different stakeholders to express their positions on a specific subject. Typically, six groups of stakeholders are involved: governments, international organisations, non-governmental organisations, the business sector, technical communities and academic organisations.

Multistakeholder is a concept usually used in policy making processes with the aim of recognising the role of various stakeholders in shaping the respective issue. It describes a dialogue among multiple stakeholders suggesting the power is not centralised but rather distributed among different parts of the society. It includes governmental bodies and a multitude of non-governmental stakeholders – civil society organisations, private companies, technical communities, academia & researchers etc.

The sensation we sometimes experience of being “pulled in” to the world of a story and temporarily losing awareness of ourselves and our real-world surroundings. Being more engaged in a narrative is associated with greater enjoyment of the story and the greater potential for the story to influence the reader, listener or viewer.

An advertising technique in which an organisation’s ad is closely connected to the content of the published material, e.g. the organisation could use native advertising to promote its activities by publishing a story about poverty in the local newspaper: the article will talk about poverty, but at the same time, it will promote the organisation’s projects.

The principle that internet service providers should enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and without favouring or blocking particular products or websites.

The section of the mass media that focuses on presenting current news to the public. The content is created in accordance to journalistic work processes, ethics and criteria e.g. timeliness, prominence, proximity, etc. See more from “news values”. The content can be published online and offline (e.g newspapers, news portals, TV and radio, etc).

Sometimes called news criteria, they “determine the selection and presentation of events as published news”, as Andrew Boyd put it. News values to consider are frequency, unexpectedness, personalisation, timeliness, familiarity, meaningfulness or being conflict-generated.

Community management is about relationships and how your brand seizes opportunities to interact with your community in public online spaces. An online community is a group of people who have a common interest and communicate through the internet. They get together online through websites, discussion boards, instant messaging, email, etc., and pursue their interests over time.

Owned media is media directly controlled from the organisation’s side (e.g. an organisation’s website, blog, Facebook page or other social media sites).

Paid media means that an organisation is making a financial contribution to media (offline and online) in order to appear in them (e.g. adverts).

Also known as photovoice, participatory photography is a qualitative research method used to document and reflect reality of a community. It combines photography with grassroots social action by asking the research participants from the community (including those of different age and status, and those who are discriminated against) to express their points of view or represent their communities by photographing scenes that highlight research themes. Through their art, they bring new insights and perspectives which raise awareness of hidden or overlooked issues and aspects of the community.

Referring to other meaning than the quality or state of being a father, partnernity is the origin of an idea or new product.

The technique of mapping target groups used mostly in design thinking methodology and marketing. The process of creating a persona revolves around thinking about the target group and detecting their living habits, opinions, age, values or level of education.

Any information that relates to an identified or identifiable living individual. Different pieces of information, which collected together can lead to the identification of a particular person, also constitute personal data.

The unauthorised use of another’s production, invention or conception, especially in infringement of a copyright.

The process or practice of using another person’s ideas or work and pretending that it is your own. Plagiarism is a crime that is administered by law.

A type of digital media, usually audio, that is available in a series of episodes or parts and is streamed or downloaded by the user over the Internet. Podcasts can be made available via a release schedule or uploaded to the Web randomly.

The totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, themes, images and other phenomena that are preferred by an informal consensus in the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid-20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

The act of giving advantage to those groups in society that are often treated unfairly because of their race, sex, or other factors.

A package of materials prepared by organisations which are given out to media representatives in order to acquaint them with an organisation, cause or project (they can be composed of various materials, including the ID of the organisation, booklets on the issues, press releases). Today, press kits are usually sent to journalists electronically.

A word derived from pseudonym, meaning “false name”, which is a state of disguised identity. The pseudonym identifies a holder, that is, one or more human beings who possess but do not disclose their true names (that is, legal identities).

Research or statistics classifying population groups according to psychological variables (such as attitudes, values, or emotions).

Includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets that are broadcast to provide information, advice or entertainment to the public without trying to make a profit. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing. Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally operated, depending on the country and the station. (Source, European Public Broadcasting).

Any creative work (such as poetry, music, art, books, movies, product designs, and computer programs) that can be used for any purpose the user desires. Public domain items are considered part of the collective cultural heritage of society in general, as opposed to the property of an individual.

The concept of general welfare, in contrast to the particular interests of a person or group. The term reflects the sense that some interests pertain to everyone, regardless of their status or position, and require action to protect them.

A type of advertisement (“ad”) that addresses some aspect of the public interest, rather than a product or brand.

Return on investment (ROI) is a method of evaluating the efficiency of an investment; in communication, organisations can measure whether their investment in advertising or other form of public relations has gained interest from target groups or increased participation in activities.

The most widely used model of youth participation. Roger Hart’s Ladder of Youth Participation uses the ladder analogy to provide a typology and distinguish three levels of non-participation and five levels of participation practice.

SEO is the process in which a webpage is improved so that an organisation’s page is displayed higher in the search results of search engine platforms (e.g. Google or Yahoo!). This ultimately improves visibility, creates more awareness about the organisation and attracts potential beneficiaries.

Rules imposed by political or economic actors on themselves. For the media, self-regulation implies respecting codes of ethics and codes of practice without interference from any governing source or institution.

The activity of sending, receiving or forwarding sexually explicit messages, photographs or images, primarily between mobile phones, of oneself to others intended to sexually excite someone.

A flowchart model of youth participation developed by Harry Shier that comprises of questions and distinguishes five levels of youth participation. This model builds on the work of Roger Hart’s ladder.

A vulgar slang term to describe a situation in which many people disagree and argue with each other. Depending on the context, it may refer to widespread and vociferous outrage expressed on the internet – especially on social media platforms.

How much of the scene is included in the picture, and whether it mainly shows the setting, people in the setting, or details of faces and things.

The process implemented before conducting strategic communications. This includes implementing SWOT analysis (detecting strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) and PESTEL analysis (detecting political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors); all of this connected, giving a good overview for the future communication efforts of an organisation.

Any type of activity that uses the internet to support political or social causes in a way that does not need much effort, for example creating or signing online petitions.

A smart city is a place where traditional networks and services are made more efficient with the use of digital solutions for the benefit of its inhabitants and business. A smart city goes beyond the use of digital technologies for better resource use and fewer emissions. It means smarter urban transport networks, upgraded water supply and waste disposal facilities and more efficient ways to light and heat buildings. It also means a more interactive and responsive city administration, safer public spaces and meeting the needs of all citizens.

Restriction of access to opportunities and limitation of the capabilities required to capitalise on these opportunities.

A society where all its members have the resources, opportunities and capabilities to learn, work, engage and have a voice.

The processes of addressing disadvantages in society by focusing on equal access to housing, health and education, equal distribution of economic resources; equality of opportunity for participation and decision-making in society; and equality of rights within a society.

A short sentence or statement used by organisations in media whose aim is to capture the attention of the public; it needs to be short and easily remembered.

A propaganda technique used in a situation where facts and situations are interpreted in a way that is deceiving (e.g. choosing one part of information while ignoring others), with the aim to influence public opinion.

a person, business or organisation with an interest or concern in a charitable project

The stage where everything is peaceful, showing the status quo before the start of the main conflict.

A pictorial representation of a film sequence often depicted as a series of comic-book style drawings – part of a director’s preparation for a film shoot. A series of rough sketches that help you to visualise and to organise your camera treatment.

A method of transmitting or receiving data (especially video and audio material) over a computer network as a steady, continuous flow, allowing playback to start while the rest of the data is still being received. Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.

A phenomenon whereby an attempt to hide, remove or censor a piece of information has the unintended consequence of publicising the information more widely, usually facilitated by the internet. It is an example of psychological reactance, wherein once people are aware that some information is being kept from them, their motivation to access and spread it is increased. It is named after American entertainer Barbra Streisand, whose 2003 attempt to suppress photographs of her residence in Malibu, California, inadvertently drew further public attention to it.

The careful watching of a person or a place, especially by an organisation such as the police or the army, because of a crime that has happened or is expected to happen with that person/place.

The UNCRC is the most widely ratified international human rights treaty in world’s history, legally binding to most countries in the world, that, amongst other rights, grants all children from 0 to 18 years of age the right to participate in decisions that are being made about them.

A practice or process where young people appear to be given a voice, but in fact have little or no choice about what they do or how they participate.

Communities where people behave in a toxic (rude/harmful) way towards others (spreading unnecessary hate, act aggressively online/offline). Often, toxic people can congregate in gaming communities.

Forms which refer to involvement in representative democracy, for example, through voting,standing for election, joining a political party or trade union and usually based on bodies with democratically elected hierarchical structures and formal processes.

USP is a distinct and appealing idea that would motivate an organisation’s target group to participate in its activities and causes. This is something that distinguishes one organisation from others (e.g. an innovative programme implemented by the organisation or the way decisions are made within the organisation).

Also known as UGC or CGM (for consumer-generated content) is publicly available media content that is produced by the users of digital media outside of professional routines and practices. Those consuming the content therefore also produce content.

From Latin “vox populi” meaning “the voice of the people”. For a “vox pop”, journalists ask a number of randomly selected people the same question, collect the answers and string them together. The different answers create an idea of the variety of opinions existing within the population.

Fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign.

A common name for a youth participatory structure aiming to provide advice to the governing body/management of an organisation, such as local, state or federal government, not-for-profit organisation or corporate organisation.

A common name for a youth participatory structure aiming to represent the views of young people, set up within the structure of another organisation, e.g. local, state or federal government, not-for-profit organisation or corporate organisation.

Young people’s vision for a Europe that enables young people to realise their full potential that is formulated into 11 specific thematic goals (modelled after Sustainable Development Goals). Youth Goals were formulated as a result of Europe-wide youth consultations with more than 43,000 young people as part of a structured dialogue. They were adopted by youth representatives at an EU Youth Conference in Sofia in 2018 and acknowledged by the EU Council of Ministers as an annex to the EU Youth Strategy.

An approach to participation that that puts less emphasis on change in young people themselves but argues that through participation young people are able to change policy making, organisations and society.

Youth participation in democratic life is about individual young people and groups of young people having the right, the means, the space, the opportunity and, where necessary, the support to freely express their views, contribute to and influence societal decision making on matters affecting them, and be active within the democratic and civic life of our communities.

Structures, such as youth councils, advisory committees, student representative councils or others implemented with the purpose of enabling youth participation.