Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N P R S T U V W Y

The degree of actual power present in an individual or system to perform a given physical or mental act. Ability types are: cognitive ability, creative ability, intelligence, language ability, psychomotor skills and reading ability.

Article 9 of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities defines accessibility as: “appropriate measures to ensure to persons with disabilities access, on an equal basis with others, to the physical environment, to transportation, to information and communications, including information and communications technologies and systems, and to other facilities and services open or provided to the public, both in urban and in rural areas” (United Nations, 2006, p.8).

Accessible information is understood as information provided in formats that allow every user and learner to access content “on an equal basis with others” (UNCRPD). Accessible information is ideally information that:

  • allows all users and learners to easily orientate themselves within the content; and
  • can be effectively perceived and understood by different perception channels, such as using eyes and/or ears and/or fingers.

stands for an active participation of citizens in the economic, social, cultural and political fields of life. In the youth field much emphasis is on learning the necessary competences through voluntary activities. The aim is not only to improve the knowledge, but also motivation, skills and practical experience to be an active citizen.

 

Problematic social media use, also known as social media addiction or social media overuse, is a proposed form of psychological or behavioural dependence on social media platforms, similar to gaming disorder, internet addiction disorder and other forms of digital media overuse.

A set of practices and techniques that draw consumer/audience attention to products or services with the purpose of persuading them to purchase the advertised product or service.

A set of rules or calculations used to solve problems and deliver a result. Algorithms are used in social media to deliver content to the user. Not all social media platforms use algorithms, though many have adopted news feeds that are delivered via an algorithm in recent years.

The situation in which someone’s name is not given or known. In media, we can see that the source of information is stated as anonymous, meaning that third parties or media consumers cannot identify the author of the content.

A computer program (see also Program).

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind, such as learning and problem-solving.The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalise and take actions that have the best chance of achieving a specific goal.

A new name for formative assessment.

A learned tendency to evaluate things or react to some ideas, persons or situations in certain ways, either consciously or unconsciously, that has an influence on behaviour. (UNESCO IBE Glossary of Curriculum Technology).

The group of consumers for whom a media text was constructed as well as anyone else who is exposed to the text.

Learning through listening – sometimes grouped with visual learning and kinaesthetic learning as one of the three different types of learning.

Factors that prevent or restrict youth participation. Barriers can be inidividual, organisation, systemic and policy-related or based on young people’s attitudes or their social position.

Technology for decentralised data retention, transparently logged in a public ledger.

Refers to a technical way of obstructing access to digital content by preventing access to the address of a piece of information. 

Citizen journalism (also known as public journalism, participatory journalism, democratic journalism, guerrilla journalism or street journalism) is based upon public citizens “playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analysing, and disseminating news and information.

The state of being a member of a defined community (political, national or social). Citizenship is usually understood to comprise a set of rights (e.g. voting and access to welfare) and responsibilities (e.g. participation).

The act of bringing different parties (such as decision-makers, experts, young people) working together in order to produce an outcome which is jointly valued.

The act of bringing different parties (such as decision-makers, experts, young people) working together in order to produce an outcome which is jointly valued.

The practice of managing a project, program, process or structure jointly with young people. In a co-management model adults and young people have equal rights and responsibilities. Example of co-management: Council of Europe Advisory Council on Youth.

The set of principles of conduct for journalists that describes the appropriate behaviour to meet the highest professional standards. Examples of such codes were established by the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ). Most share common principles, including truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness and public accountability, as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public.

The set of principles of conduct for journalists that describes the appropriate behaviour to meet the highest professional standards. Examples of such codes were established by the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ). Most share common principles, including truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness and public accountability, as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public.

Coding refers to creating computer programing code. In a more general sense, the word coding is used to refer to assigning a code or classification to something. Coding is the primary method for allowing intercommunication between humans and machines.

A process whereby information is packaged, channelled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via a medium. All forms of communication require a sender, a message and an intended recipient. However, the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication to occur.

Community management (Online Communities) is about relationships and how your brand seizes opportunities to interact with your community in public online spaces. An online community is a group of people who have a common interest and communicate through the internet. They get together online through websites, discussion boards, instant messaging, email, etc., and pursue their interests over time.

Any form of media that is created and controlled by a community – either a geographic community or a community of identity or interest. Community media are separate from either private (commercial) media, state-run media or public broadcast media. These media are increasingly recognised as a crucial element in a vibrant and democratic media system.

The ability of an individual to gather and use internal resources such as knowledge, skills and attitude, as well as external resources such as databases, colleagues, peers, libraries, instruments etc., in order to solve a specific problem efficiently in a real life situation. The set of skills, knowledge and understanding/attitudes needed to perform something successfully to a professional standard.

A set of facts and circumstances that surround a media text and help determine its interpretation.

The pedagogical approach in MIL teaching that focuses on the study and analysis of the technical, narrative and situational contexts of media texts.

In the media context: a standard or norm that acts as a rule governing behaviour.

The ability to transform different kinds of information, whether voice, sound, image or text, into digital code, which is then accessible by a range of devices, from the personal computer to the mobile phone, thus creating a digital communication environment.

A set of rights granted to the author or creator of a work, to restrict others’ ability to copy, redistribute and reshape the content. Rights are frequently owned by the companies who sponsor the work rather than the creators themselves, and can be bought and sold on the market.

An essential, non-modifiable, irremovable indicator of the MIL Assessment Framework.

The ability to examine and analyse information and ideas in order to understand and assess their values and assumptions, rather than simply taking propositions at face value (c.f. also reflective thinking).

A shared, learned and symbolic system of values, beliefs and attitudes that shapes and influences perception and behaviour.

A list of the topics to be learned in a course of study. (The terms “curriculum” and “syllabus” are used slightly differently in different countries, but essentially they both mean a list of what is to be learned). A set of courses, the content of which is designed to provide a sequential approach to learning.

Cyber safety is the safe and responsible use of information and communication technology. It is about keeping information safe and secure, but also about being responsible with that information, being respectful of other people online and using good “netiquette” (internet etiquette).

Cyberbullying is when someone uses technology (such as the internet or a mobile phone) to bully others. Cyberbullying can happen in a number of different ways including receiving nasty messages or emails, being the target of a hate group on a social networking site, having embarrassing photos and videos shared publicly online, or being excluded from group conversations. Content can be circulated very quickly and anonymously on the internet, and there are often lots of bystanders which can make the experience more traumatic and harder to combat.

Cyber security refers to the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, devices, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorised access. Government agencies, the military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals and other groups collect, process and store a great deal of confidential information on computers and transmit that data across networks to other computers. With the growing volume and sophistication of cyber attacks, ongoing attention is required to protect sensitive business and personal information, as well as safeguard national security.

Unlike most computer terms, “cyberspace” does not have a standard, objective definition. Instead, it is used to describe the virtual world of computers. For example, an object in cyberspace refers to a block of data floating around a computer system or network. With the advent of the internet, cyberspace now extends to the global network of computers. So, after sending an email to your friend, you could say you sent the message to her through cyberspace. However, use this term sparingly, as it is a popular newbie term and is overused.

Data Retention is the continued storage of an organisation’s data for compliance or business reasons. An organisation may retain data for several different reasons. One reason is to comply with state and federal regulations.

Data traffic or network traffic is the amount of data moving across a network at a given point of time. Network data in computer networks is mostly encapsulated in network packets, which provide the load in the network. When there are many devices connected to one single Wi-Fi source, traffic is high and thus the speed of exchanging the network packets might be slower than when fewer devices are connected or a larger network plan is in place.

Debunking shows that something is less important, less effective or less true than it has been made out to appear. 

Bottom three rungs of Roger Hart’s ladder of participation which are classified as non-genuine youth participation practices which do not enable young people to genuinely participate in decision-making processes

Top five rungs of Roger Hart’s ladder of participation with varying degrees of youth involvement. All five rungs are regarded as youth participation

Having the ICT equipment and skills to participate in a digital society, such as to access government information online, use social networking sites and use a mobile phone. In a broader sense, digital citizenship is also referred as an understanding of oneself as an equal and responsible resident of the online, as well as the offline, world. 

The ability to use digital technology, communication tools or networks to locate, evaluate, use and create information. It also refers to the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when presented via computers, or to a person’s ability to perform tasks effectively in a digital environment. (UNESDOC Digital Library, 2013)

Protecting personal information online by taking various measures, such as: 

  • installing security software that provides initial protection by setting up a firewall, as well as scanning computers for malware, viruses, Trojan horses, worms and spyware;
  • choosing appropriate usernames that do not correlate with personal information such as names or nicknames;
  • increasing password strength by adding special characters (uppercase letters, punctuation, symbols and numbers);
  • managing personal information by customising the privacy options given by websites (while being mindful that settings can reset if changes to the website occur);

Digitisation is the process of converting a product or service to digital form. However, it is often confused with digitalisation and digital transformation. This Forbes article discusses the differences between the three concepts.

The treatment of a subject or issue (spoken or written) discussed at length.

False information created with the intent to harm a person, group or country. It can include imposter content, false context, manipulated content and fabricated content (Wardle and Derakhshan, 2017). Misinformation becomes disinformation when the creator or multiplier of the information has the intent to mislead the recipient (Karlova and Fisher, 2013). 

The set of principles of conduct for journalists that describes the appropriate behaviour to meet the highest professional standards. Examples of such codes were established by the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ). Most share common principles, including truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness and public accountability, as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public.

A subdivision of the internet consisting of computers or sites usually with a common purpose (such as providing commercial information) and denoted in internet addresses by a unique abbreviation (such as .com for commercial sites or .gov for government sites). A domain is obtained for hosting a website.

The term “doxxing” comes from the expression “dropping dox”, which was a revenge tactic used by hackers where they dropped malicious information on a rival. Nowadays, doxxing is used to shame or punish people who would rather stay anonymous, because of their controversial beliefs or other types of non-mainstream activity.

The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support participation and involvement in government and governance processes. E-Participation refers to all ICT-supported democratic processes.

A metaphorical description of a situation in which beliefs are amplified or reinforced by communication and repetition inside a closed system. By visiting an “echo chamber”, people are able to seek out information that reinforces their existing views, potentially as an unconscious exercise of confirmation bias. This may increase political and social polarisation and extremism. The term is a metaphor based on the acoustic echo chamber, where sounds reverberate in a hollow enclosure.

The person responsible for the editorial side of a digital/non-digital publication, determining the final content of a code/text. This term should be clearly differentiated from media owner, which refers to the person or group of stakeholders who own a media company.

The professional freedom entrusted to editors to make editorial decisions without interference from the owner of the media outlet or any other state or non-state actors.

A process in which power relationships are changed in the interests of the disadvantaged, oppressed or exploited (e.g. young people, people with disabilities, minorities, women etc)

Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information’s true meaning. The science of encrypting and decrypting information is called cryptography.

The idea that everyone, irrespective of age, gender, religion and ethnicity, is entitled to the same rights and/or opportunities. It is a fundamental principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights captured in the following: “recognition of the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world”. The idea of citizenship embraces equality issues.

Fairness or justice in the way people are treated

A tendency to seek distraction and relief from unpleasant realities, especially by seeking entertainment or engaging in fantasy.

A form of sports competition using video games. Esports often takes the form of organised, multiplayer video game competitions, particularly between professional players, individually or as teams.

An EU-level youth participatroy process implemented across Europe: a dialogue with young people and youth organisations involving policy and decision makers, as well as experts, researchers and other relevant civil society actors. It serves as a forum for continuous joint reflection and consultation on the priorities, implementation and follow-up of European cooperation in the field of youth.

False information or propaganda published under the guise of being authentic news. Fake news websites and channels push their fake news content in an attempt to mislead consumers about the content and spread false facts via social networks and word-of-mouth. The official term used for fake news is information disorder. See more in Misinformation and Disinformation. 

A form of entertainment that enacts a story by a sequence of images and sound, giving the illusion of continuous movement.

A situation in which an internet user encounters only information and opinions that conform to and reinforce their own beliefs, caused by algorithms that personalise an individual’s online experience.

Filtering occurs when messages pass through an intermediary in the communication channel. Filtering can often alter the original message, limit its effectiveness or render it incomprehensible. 

Involves a more structured and usually longer-term approach to involving young people in decision making which is typically executed through formal policies and the creation of youth participatory structures

Frameworks and concepts that underpin and influence youth participation, such as the human rights framework, social justice framework, ethical framework for youth work

A fundamental human right. It is used to indicate both the freedom of verbal speech and any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information, regardless of the medium used. The freedom of the press is a corollary to this right and essential to the building and supporting of communities and civil society.

The right of citizens to access information held by public bodies.

The freedom to speak freely without censorship or limitation. 

The media in general (not just print media) being free from direct censorship or control by government. This does not preclude the application of competition law to prevent monopolies or state allocation of broadcast frequencies.

A generic term applied to anyone who has the role of filtering ideas and information for publication or broadcasting – the internal decision-making process of relaying or withholding information from the media to the masses. Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the media hierarchy – from a reporter deciding which sources to include in a story to editors deciding which stories to print.

A specific kind of media content (e.g. entertainment, information, news, advertising, drama, etc.). Each genre has its own general purpose and design.

First mentioned by Marshall McLuhan in his book The Gutenberg Galaxy, to describe how the globe has been contracted into a village by electronic technology and the instantaneous movement of information from every quarter to every point at the same time. It has come to be identified with the internet and the World Wide Web.

The criminal activity of becoming friends with a child, especially over the internet, in order to try to persuade the child to have a sexual relationship.

Hacking generally refers to unauthorised intrusion into a computer or a network. The person engaged in hacking activities is known as a hacker. This hacker may alter system or security features to accomplish a goal that differs from the original purpose of the system.

Hacktivism is the act of misusing a computer system or network for a socially or politically motivated reason. Individuals who perform hacktivism are known as hacktivists.

Any communication that incites violence based on group specific hate of a defined group of people because of their collective characteristics (ethnicity, gender, sexuality, etc.).

A set of entitlements and protections regarded as necessary to protect the dignity and self-worth of a human being. Such rights are usually captured in national and international documentation that articulates these rights (e.g. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, etc.). This also encompasses the rights of groups or peoples such as poor and/or marginalised groups in society.

A framework comprising of international and domestic legal instruments that protect the fundamental human rights and freedoms of all human beings. Youth participation has its basis in human rights framework and the most notable legal instrument in the area of youth participation is UNCROC.

Information and communication technologies (ICT) describes all technical means used to handle information and facilitate communication, including computer and network hardware, as well as necessary software. ICT includes telephony, broadcast media, and all types of audio and video processing and transmission. It stresses the role of communications (telephone lines and wireless signals) in modern information technology.

A doctrine, philosophy, body of beliefs or principles belonging to an individual or group. It can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, a way of looking at things (as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies) or as a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society.

An iconic mental representation or picture.

Society for all, in which every individual has an active role to play. Such a society is based on fundamental values of equity, equality, social justice, and human rights and freedoms, as well as on the principles of tolerance and embracing diversity

Any form of media that is created and controlled by a community – either a geographic community or a community of identity or interest. Community media are separate from either private (commercial) media, state-run media or public broadcast media. These media are increasingly recognised as a crucial element in a vibrant and democratic media system.

Uses mechanisms that have no or a ‘loose’ structure, are ‘casual’ in their tone, require limited planning and resources, are quite often short-term and are usually not executed through formal policy

A broad term that can cover data; knowledge derived from study, experience, or instruction; signals or symbols. In the media world, the term “information” is often used to describe knowledge of specific events or situations that has been gathered or received by communication, intelligence or news reports.

The ability to recognise when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, effectively use and communicate information in its various formats. Information literacy includes the competencies to be effective in all stages of the lifecycle of documents of all kinds; the capacity to understand the ethical implications of these documents; and the ability to behave in an ethical way throughout the stages.

The persons, groups and documents from which information is obtained.

Internet governance refers to the rules, policies, standards and practices that coordinate and shape global cyberspace. While internet connectivity generated innovative new services, capabilities and unprecedented forms of sharing and cooperation, it also created new forms of crime, abuse, surveillance and social conflict. Internet governance is the process whereby cyberspace participants resolve conflicts over these problems and develop a workable order.

IoT is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the internet.

An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides customers with internet access. Data may be transmitted using several technologies, including dial-up, DSL, cable modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects.

Internet of Things is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

A unique string of numbers separated by full stops that identifies each computer using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network.

An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides customers with internet access. Data may be transmitted using several technologies, including dial-up, DSL, cable modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects.

The collecting, writing, editing and presentation of news in newspapers, magazines, radio and television broadcasts or the internet.

An approach to learning that involves physical activity rather than, for example, listening to a lecture.

An approach to education that places the learner at the heart of the learning process. Here the needs and aspirations of individuals are placed at the centre of any learning process or programme, focusing particularly on the experiences they bring to the learning situation. It embraces the notion of participation and values the learner’s contribution to the community of learning.

A society that embraces the idea that everyone should continue learning throughout life.

A Let’s Play (LP) is a video (or screenshots accompanied by text) documenting the playthrough of a video game, usually including commentary or a camera view of the gamer’s face.

Competency in the use of a library – both in a digital and non-digital sense. 

Connected to the idea of learner-centred education. It recognises that learning does not “start” and “stop” after a programme of instruction within a specific time and space. Each individual is constantly learning, which makes media and information technologies critical to sustain this kind of learning. It occurs in various settings (places of work, in community activities, non-formal education settings, etc.).

Media disseminated via the largest distribution channels, which are therefore representative of what the majority of media consumers are likely to encounter. The term also denotes media that generally reflect the prevailing currents of thought, influence or activity.

The process by which companies create customer interest in goods or services. Marketing generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication and business developments.

Channels of communication through which messages flow and which are designed to be consumed by large audiences using the agencies of technology.

The essential competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that allow citizens to engage effectively with media and other information providers and develop critical thinking and life-long learning skills for socialising and becoming active citizens. An M.I.-literate person is used as an abbreviated version of Media and Information literate person.

A set of competencies that empower citizens to access, retrieve, evaluate, understand, use and create information and media content in all formats and sources, using ICTs in a critical, ethical and effective way. The MIL competencies are composed of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Although often synonymous with “skills”, in this document and for the MIL Assessment Framework, UNESCO uses the term “competencies”, which is also more relevant when applied to a complex environment, including cognitive, metacognitive and non-cognitive factors.

Information that was produced and published by media and delivered via any medium such as the internet, television, radio, ICTs as well as live events to the end-user/audience in specific contexts.

Conventions, formats, symbols and narrative structures that indicate the meaning of media messages to an audience. Symbolically, the language of electronic media works in much the same way as grammar works in print media.

Understanding and using mass media in either an assertive or non-assertive way, including an informed and critical understanding of media, the techniques they employ and their effects. Also, the ability to read, analyse, evaluate and produce communication in a variety of media forms (e.g. television, print, radio, computers, etc.).

Refers to all the technical, cognitive, social, civic and creative capacities that allow us to access and have a critical understanding of and interact with media. These capacities allow us to exercise critical thinking, while participating in the economic, social and cultural aspects of society and playing an active role in the democratic process. This concept covers different media: broadcasting, radio, press, through various channels: traditional, internet, social media and addresses the needs of all ages.

An amusing or interesting item (such as a captioned picture or video) or genre of items that is spread widely online, especially through social media.

Activities aimed at the quick retail sale of goods using bundling, display techniques, free samples, on-the-spot demonstration, pricing, special offers and other point-of-sale methods.

The essential competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that allow citizens to engage effectively with media and other information providers and develop critical thinking and life-long learning skills for socialising and becoming active citizens. An M.I.-literate person is used as an abbreviated version of Media and Information literate person.

False information, but it is not created with the intent to be harmful (Wardle and Derakhshan, 2017); therefore, it can include everyday interactions in which miscommunication takes place as well as content that could be understood in several ways. 

A paper-and-pencil test with or without some semi-automated features and access to the internet. It could be delivered on CD-ROM or Memory stick (USB) formats. The results are not sent to the central server.

Theoretical models conceptualising and explaining the processes or different levels of youth (citizen, or children’s) participation, often presented in a form of diagrams and graphs. A most widely recognised model of youth participation is Roger Hart’s ladder of youth participation.

A principle applied in international cooperation inviting different stakeholders to express their positions on a specific subject. Typically, six groups of stakeholders are involved: governments, international organisations, non-governmental organisations, the business sector, technical communities and academic organisations.

The combined use of several media, especially for the purposes of education or entertainment. It can also mean the integration of text, sound, full- or partial-motion video or graphics in digital form.

Myths represent implicit belief systems that express the fears, desires and aspirations of a culture, such as the myth of the “heroic journey”.

The telling of a story or plot through a sequence of events. In the context of a media text, it is the coherent sequencing of events in time and space.

The principle that internet service providers should enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and without favouring or blocking particular products or websites.

Computers that are linked together, either by wires or wirelessly. These linked computers could be in a classroom, an office building or in different parts of the world.

A set of conventions governing the treatment and especially the formatting of data in an electronic communications system.

The communication of information on current events through print, broadcast media, the internet or word-of-mouth to a third party or mass audience.

The section of the mass media that focuses on presenting current news to the public. It includes print media (e.g. newspapers and magazines), broadcast media (radio and television) and, increasingly, internet-based media (e.g. World Wide Web pages and blogs). Content organised and distributed on digital platforms.

Sometimes called news criteria, they determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet, and the attention it is given by the audience. Some of the most important news values include frequency, unexpectedness, personalisation, meaningfulness or being conflict-generated.

A regularly scheduled publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper, such as newsprint.

Personal data is any information that relates to an identified or identifiable living individual. Different pieces of information, which collected together can lead to the identification of a particular person, also constitute personal data.

The unauthorised use of another’s production, invention or conception, especially in infringement of a copyright.

A platform is a group of technologies that are used as a base upon which other applications, processes or technologies are developed. A social platform is a web-based technology that enables the development, deployment and management of social media solutions and services. It provides the ability to create social media websites and services with complete social media network functionality.

Characterised by a diversity of media outlets, both in terms of ownership (private, public and community) and types of media (print, radio, television and the internet). More broadly, pluralism in society is characterised by a situation in which members of diverse ethnic, racial, religious or social groups maintain an autonomous participation in and development of their traditional culture or special interests within the confines of a common civilisation.

Audio and video media files that are released periodically and may be listened to offline on electronic devices.

A range of concrete acts that might be meaningful for young people to carry out in order to influence the political process, or fellow citizens.

The totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, themes, images and other phenomena that are preferred by an informal consensus in the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid-20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

The act of giving advantage to those groups in society that are often treated unfairly because of their race, sex, etc

Print media responsible for gathering and publishing news in the form of newspapers or magazines.

Media consisting of paper and ink – reproduced in a printing process that is traditionally mechanical.

The claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.

The process of putting together media content to make a finished media product. It can also refer to the process of creating media texts as well as the people engaged in this process.

Another word for software, an application or a package, e.g. Microsoft Word or Adobe Photoshop. The set of instructions loaded into a computer that enable it to provide specific functions, such as word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, databases and image editing.

Programming(see coding) refers to creating computer programming code. In a more general sense, the word coding is used to refer to assigning a code or classification to something. Programming is the primary method for allowing intercommunication between humans and machines.

Propaganda is information that is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, which may not be objective and may be presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented. Propaganda is often associated with material prepared by governments, but activist groups, companies, religious organisations, the media, and individuals can also produce propaganda (Wikipedia).

A word derived from pseudonym, meaning “false name”, which is a state of disguised identity. The pseudonym identifies a holder, that is, one or more human beings who possess but do not disclose their true names (that is, legal identities).

Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets that are broadcast to provide information, advice or entertainment to the public without trying to make a profit. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing. Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally operated, depending on the country and the station. 

A term applied to original creative works, including poetry, music, art, books, movies, product designs and other forms of intellectual property, such as computer programs. Being in the public domain means that the creative work can be used for any purpose the user desires. Public domain items are considered part of the collective cultural heritage of society in general, as opposed to the property of an individual.

The concept of general welfare or benefit to the public as a whole, in contrast to the particular interests of a person or group. There is no agreement as to what constitutes the public interest, but the term reflects the sense that some interests pertain to everyone, regardless of their status or position, and require action to protect them.

A type of advertisement (“ad”) that addresses some aspect of the public interest, rather than a product or brand.

Publicly funded media that are often required to play a role in supporting the public interest by providing balanced and diverse programming that is representative of the community as a whole.

The notion of a public space in which members of society can meet and freely exchange news, information and opinions on matters of common concern in public, on the basis of equality and inclusivity. The most influential modern theorist of the public sphere is Jürgen Habermas.

The communication of audible signals encoded in electromagnetic waves; the transmission of programmes for the public by radio broadcast.

The ability to think about what one is doing, to go beyond a take-it-for-granted mentality, and hence to make new discoveries (c.f. also critical thinking).

Refers to attempts to control or affect the behaviour of media organisations and media actors by developing and enforcing rules and codes for their behaviour.

Roger Hart’s ladder of Youth Participation is the most widely used model of youth participation that uses the ladder analogy to provide a typology and distinguish three levels of non-participation and five levels of participation practice.

Rules imposed by political or economic actors on themselves. For the media, self-regulation implies respecting codes of ethics and codes of practice without interference from any governing source or institution.

Prejudice or discrimination based on gender, especially discrimination against women – behaviour, conditions or attitudes that foster stereotypes of social roles based on gender.

The activity of sending, receiving or forwarding sexually explicit messages, photographs or images, primarily between mobile phones, of oneself to others intended to sexually excite someone.

A serious crime that occurs when someone (the perpetrator) threatens another person (the victim) to distribute the victim’s private and sensitive material if the victim doesn’t provide them with images of a sexual nature, sexual favours or money. The perpetrator may also threaten to harm the victim’s friends or relatives by using information that they have obtained from the victim’s electronic devices, unless the victim complies with their demands.

A flowchart model of youth participation develoepd by Harry Shier that comprises of questions and distinguishes five levels of youth participation. This model builds on the work of Roger Hart’s ladder.

A vulgar slang term to describe a situation in which many people disagree and argue with each other. Depending on the context, it may refer to widespread and vociferous outrage expressed on the internet – especially on social media platforms.

An activity that uses the internet to support political or social causes in a way that does not need much effort, for example by creating or signing online petitions.

A Smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic Internet of Things (IoT) sensors to collect data and then use the insights gained from that data to manage assets, resources and services efficiently.

Smart devices are interactive electronic gadgets that understand simple commands sent by users and help in daily activities. Some of the most commonly used smart devices are smartphones, tablets, phablets, smartwatches, smart glasses and other personal electronics. While many smart devices are small, portable personal electronics, they are in fact defined by their ability to connect to a network to share and interact remotely. Many TV sets and refrigerators are also therefore considered smart devices.

A concept that aims at emphasising the importance of social contacts between groups and within groups.

Restriction of access to opportunities and limitation of the capabilities required to capitalise on these opportunities

A society where all its members have the resources, opportunities and capabilities to learn, work, engage and have a voice

Seeks to address disadvantage in the society by focusing on equal access to housing, health and education, equal distribution of economic resources; equality of opportunity for participation and decision-making in society; and equality of rights within a society

Online connections with people in networks surrounding a common interest or activity. Social network activity includes people publishing profiles that provide information about themselves. Facebook is an example of a popular social network.

The programs and data that give instructions to a computer on how to handle data or operations of various kinds. Examples range from office software that produces and manipulates data, to software that controls the shaping and editing of images.

A common form of media representation that uses instantly recognised characteristics to label members of a social or cultural group. It can have both negative and positive connotations.

A pictorial representation of a film sequence often depicted as a series of comic-book style drawings – part of a director’s preparation for a film shoot.

A method of transmitting or receiving data (especially video and audio material) over a computer network as a steady, continuous flow, allowing playback to start while the rest of the data is still being received. Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. 

A phenomenon whereby an attempt to hide, remove or censor a piece of information has the unintended consequence of publicising the information more widely, usually facilitated by the internet. It is an example of psychological reactance, wherein once people are aware that some information is being kept from them, their motivation to access and spread it is increased. It is named after American entertainer Barbra Streisand, whose 2003 attempt to suppress photographs of her residence in Malibu, California, inadvertently drew further public attention to it. 

An EU-level youth participatroy process implemented across Europe: a dialogue with young people and youth organisations involving policy and decision makers, as well as experts, researchers and other relevant civil society actors. It serves as a forum for continuous joint reflection and consultation on the priorities, implementation and follow-up of European cooperation in the field of youth.

The careful watching of a person or a place, especially by an organisation such as the police or the army, because of a crime that has happened or is expected to happen with that person/place.

The use of symbols, including images, concepts and archetypes, to represent aspects of reality (e.g. bad cowboys wearing black hats and good cowboys wearing white hats).

The group of people to whom a media text is specifically addressed because of a set of shared characteristics, such as age, gender, profession, class, etc.

Hardware used to create and communicate with media (e.g. radios, computers, telephones, satellites, printing presses, etc.). It is often used as another word for ICT, although strictly speaking “technology” can mean almost any type of tool or applied knowledge. For example, pencil and paper, slates, blackboards and whiteboards are all types of writing technology. 

 

Technology resources – Digital information, and digital hardware and software.

The transmission of dynamic or sometimes static images, generally with accompanying sound, via electric or electromagnetic signals; the visual and audio content of such signals; and the organisations that produce and broadcast television programmes.

A layer, ranking or classification group in any hierarchy.

A practice or process where young people appear to be given a voice, but in fact have little or no choice about what they do or how they participate

Digital hardware and software (as in digital tools).

Communities, where people behave in a toxic (rude/harmful) way towards others (spreading unnecessary hate, act aggressively online/offline). Often, toxic people can congregate in gaming communities. 

Various kinds of publicly available media content that can be produced by the users of digital media. Those consuming the content therefore also produce content. Also known as consumer-generated media (CGM) and user-created content.

The most widely ratified international human rights treaty in world’s history, legally binding to most countries in the world, that, amongst other rights, grants all children from 0 to 18 years of age the right to participate in decisions that are being made about them.

Various kinds of publicly available media content that can be produced by the users of digital media. Those consuming the content therefore also produce content. Also known as consumer-generated media (CGM) and user-created content.

An electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a touchscreen, virtual reality headset or monitor/TV set.

Video on demand: an interactive TV system that allows the viewer to select content and view it at a time of his or her own choosing.

A style of learning based on absorbing images or by watching demonstrations.

Media that rely on images to communicate meaning (e.g. television, film, the internet, etc.).

Video on demand: an interactive TV system that allows the viewer to select content and view it at a time of his or her own choosing.

Applications that facilitate interactivity and allow users to design their own software features. Web 2.0 applications emphasise the importance of collaboration and sharing.

A collection of web pages, images and data with a common Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

A website usually maintained by more than one person, where users collaborate on content. They often have multiple, interlinked pages and content including commentary, description of events, documents, etc. A wiki differs from a blog in that its content is usually updated by multiple users and a larger variety of materials can be downloaded and uploaded onto it.

A service operating over the internet that enables large volumes of content to be available by providing three key functions: a publishing format, HyperText Markup Language (HTML); an address for each piece of information (known as its Uniform Resource Locator or URL); and a means of transferring information through the HyperText Transfer Protocol (http).

The EU youth strategy does not include an official definition of the specific period in life when a person is considered to be ‘young’. The understanding of which age groups are considered to be ‘young people’ varies from one Member State to another, and from one period in time and one socioeconomic context to the other. As an instrument for implementing the EU youth strategy, the Erasmus+ programme targets young people between 13 and 30.

A common name for a youth participatory structure aiming to provide advice to the governing body/management of an organisation, such as local, state or federal government, not-for-profit organisation or corprorate organisation

A common name for a youth participatory structure aiming to represent the views of young people, set up within the structure of another organisation, e.g. Local, state or federal government, not-for-profit organisation or corprorate organisation

An approach that generally views youth participation as a key strategy in enabling the development of skills and competences in young people.

‘Youth engagement’ is a term related to youth participation that has emerged from North America. It is often used interchangeably with ‘youth participation’. US academics Nenga and Taft made an attempt to conceptualize youth engagement as “activities in which children and youth enact a public-spirited commitment in pursuit of the common good” – a kind of balance between volunteerism and activism

Young people’s vision for a Europe that enables young people to realise their full potential that is formulated into 11 specific thematic goals (modelled after Sustainable Development Goals). Youth Goals were formulated as a result of Europe-wide youth consultations with more than 43,000 young people as part of a structured dialogue. They were adopted by youth representatives at an EU Youth Conference in Sofia in 2018 and acknowledged by the EU Council of Ministers as an annex to the EU Youth Strategy.

An approach to participation that that puts less emphasis on change in young people themselves but argues that through participation young people are able to change policy making, organisations and society.

Youth participation in democratic life is about individual young people and groups of young people having the right, the means, the space, the opportunity and, where necessary, the support to freely express their views, contribute to and influence societal decision making on matters affecting them, and be active within the democratic and civic life of our communities.

Structures, such as youth councils, advisory committees, student representative councils etc, with the purpose of enabling youth participation